Today I’m happy to announce the next COM Programming class to be held in February 2023. The syllabus for the 3 day class can be found here. The course will be delivered in 6 half-days (4 hours each).
Dates: February (7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16). Times: 11am to 3pm EST (8am to 12pm PST) (4pm to 8pm UT) Cost: 750USD (if paid by an individual), 1400 USD (if paid by a company).
Half days should make it comfortable enough even if you’re not in an ideal time zone.
The class will be conducted remotely using Microsoft Teams.
What you need to know before the class: You should be comfortable using Windows on a Power User level. Concepts such as processes, threads, DLLs, and virtual memory should be understood fairly well. You should have experience writing code in C and some C++. You don’t have to be an expert, but you must know C and basic C++ to get the most out of this class. In case you have doubts, talk to me.
Participants in my Windows Internals and Windows System Programming classes have the required knowledge for the class.
We’ll start by looking at why COM was created in the first place, and then build clients and servers, digging into various mechanisms COM provides. See the syllabus for more details.
Previous students in my classes get 10% off. Multiple participants from the same company get a discount (email me for the details).
To register, send an email to email@example.com with the title “COM Programming Training”, and write the name(s), email(s) and time zone(s) of the participants.
The Windows Registry is one of the most recognized aspects of Windows. It’s a hierarchical database, storing information on a machine-wide basis and on a per-user basis… mostly. In this post, I’d like to examine the major parts of the Registry, including the “real” Registry.
Looking at the Registry is typically done by launching the built-in RegEdit.exe tool, which shows the five “hives” that seem to comprise the Registry:
These so-called “hives” provide some abstracted view of the information in the Registry. I’m saying “abstracted”, because not all of these are true hives. A true hive is stored in a file. The full hive list can be found in the Registry itself – at HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\hivelist (I’ll abbreviate HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE as HKLM), mapping an internal key name to the file where it’s stored (more on these “internal” key names will be discussed soon):
Let’s examine the so-called “hives” as seen in the root RegEdit’s view.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is the simplest to understand. It contains machine-wide information, most of it stored in files (persistent). Some details related to hardware is built when the system initializes and is only kept in memory while the system is running. Such keys are volatile, since their contents disappear when the system is shut down. There are many interesting keys within HKLM, but my goal is not to go over every key (that would take a full book), but highlight a few useful pieces. HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services is the key where all services and device drivers are installed. Note that “CurrentControlSet” is not a true key, but in fact is a link key, connecting it to something like HKLM\System\ControlSet001. The reason for this indirection is beyond the scope of this post. Regedit does not show this fact directly – there is no way to tell whether a key is a true key or just points to a different key. This is one reason I createdTotal Registry (formerly called Registry Explorer), that shows these kind of nuances:
The liked key seems to have a weird name starting with \REGISTRY\MACHINE\. We’ll get to that shortly.
Other subkeys of note under HKLM include SOFTWARE, where installed applications store their system-level information; SAM and SECURITY, where local security policy and local accounts information are managed. These two subkeys contents is not not visible – even administrators don’t get access – only the SYSTEM account is granted access. One way to see what’s in these keys is to use psexec from Sysinternals to launch RegEdit or TotalRegistry under the SYSTEM account. Here is a command you can run in an elevated command window that will launch RegEdit under the SYSTEM account (if you’re using RegEdit, close it first):
psexec -s -i -d RegEdit
The -s switch indicates the SYSTEM account. -i is critical as to run the process in the interactive session (the default would run it in session 0, where no interactive user will ever see it). The -d switch is optional, and simply returns control to the console while the process is running, rather than waiting for the process to terminate.
The other way to gain access to the SAM and SECURITY subkeys is to use the “Take Ownership” privilege (easy to do when the Permissions dialog is open), and transfer the ownership to an admin user – the owner can specify who can do what with an object, and allow itself full access. Obviously, this is not a good idea in general, as it weakens security.
The BCD00000000 subkey contains the Boot Configuration Data (BCD), normally accessed using the bcdedit.exe tool.
HKEY_USERS – this is the other hive that truly stores data. Its subkeys contain user profiles for all users that ever logged in locally to this machine. Each subkey’s name is a Security ID (SID), in its string representation:
There are 3 well-known SIDs, representing the SYSTEM (S-1-5-18), LocalService (S-1-5-19), and NetworkService (S-1-5-20) accounts. These are the typical accounts used for running Windows Services. “Normal” users get ugly SIDs, such as the one shown – that’s my user’s local SID. You may be wondering what is that “_Classes” suffix in the second key. We’ll get to that as well.
HKEY_CURRENT_USER is a link key, pointing to the user’s subkey under HKEY_USERS running the current process. Obviously, the meaning of “current user” changes based on the process access token looking at the Registry.
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT is the most curious of the keys. It’s not a “real” key in the sense that it’s not a hive – not stored in a file. It’s not a link key, either. This key is a “combination” of two keys: HKLM\Software\Classes and HKCU\Software\Classes. In other words, the information in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT is coming from the machine hive first, but can be overridden by the current user’s hive. What information is there anyway? The first thing is shell-related information, such as file extensions and associations, and all other information normally used by Explorer.exe. The second thing is information related to the Component Object Model (COM). For example, the CLSID subkey holds COM class registration (GUIDs you can pass to CoCreateInstance to (potentially) create a COM object of that class). Looking at the CLSID subkey under HKLM\Software\Classes shows there are 8160 subkeys, or roughly 8160 COM classes registered on my system from HKLM:
Looking at the same key under HKEY_CURRENT_USER tells a different story:
Only 46 COM classes provide extra or overridden registrations. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT combines both, and uses HKCU in case of a conflict (same key name). This explains the extra “_Classes” subkey within the HKEY_USERS key – it stores the per user stuff (in the file UsrClasses.dat in something like c:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows).
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG is a link to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware\Profiles\Current
The list of “standard” hives (the hives accessible by official Windows APIs such as RegOpenKeyEx contains some more that are not shown by Regedit. They can be viewed by TotalReg if the option “Extra Hives” is selected in the View menu. At this time, however, the tool needs to be restarted for this change to take effect (I just didn’t get around to implementing the change dynamically, as it was low on my priority list). Here are all the hives accessible with the official Windows API:
I’ll let the interested reader to dig further into these “extra” hives. On of these hives deserves special mentioning – HKEY_PERFORMANCE_DATA – it was used in the pre Windows 2000 days as a way to access Performance Counters. Registry APIs had to be used at the time. Fortunately, starting from Windows 2000, a new dedicated API is provided to access Performance Counters (functions starting with Pdh* in <pdh.h>).
Is this it? Is this the entire Registry? Not quite. As you can see in TotalReg, there is a node called “Registry”, that tells yet another story. Internally, all Registry keys are rooted in a single key called REGISTRY. This is the only named Registry key. You can see it in the root of the Object Manager’s namespace with WinObjfrom Sysinternals:
Here is the object details in a Local Kernel debugger:
All other Registry keys are based off of that root key, the Configuration Manager (the kernel component in charge of the Registry) parses the remaining path as expected. This is the real Registry. The official Windows APIs cannot use this path format, but native APIs can. For example, using NtOpenKey (documented as ZwOpenKey in the Windows Driver Kit, as this is a system call) allows such access. This is how TotalReg is able to look at the real Registry.
Clearly, the normal user-mode APIs somehow map the “standard” hive path to the real Registry path. The simplest is the mapping of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE to \REGISTRY\MACHINE. Another simple one is HKEY_USERS mapped to \REGISTRY\USER. HKEY_CURRENT_USER is a bit more complex, and needs to be mapped to the per-user hive under \REGISTRY\USER. The most complex is our friend HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT – there is no simple mapping – the APIs have to check if there is per-user override or not, etc.
Lastly, it seems there are keys in the real Registry that cannot be reached from the standard Registry at all:
There is a key named “A” which seems inaccessible. This key is used for private keys in processes, very common in Universal Windows Application (UWP) processes, but can be used in other processes as well. They are not accessible generally, not even with kernel code – the Configuration Manager prevents it. You can verify their existence by searching for \Registry\A in tools like Process Explorer or TotalReg itself (by choosing Scan Key Handles from the Tools menu). Here is TotalReg, followed by Process Explorer:
Finally, the WC key is used for Windows Container, internally called Silos. A container (like the ones created by Docker) is an isolated instance of a user-mode OS, kind of like a lightweight virtual machine, but the kernel is not separate (as would be with a true VM), but is provided by the host. Silos are very interesting, but outside the scope of this post.
Briefly, there are two main Silo types: An Application Silo, which is not a true container, and mostly used with application based on the Desktop Bridge technology. A classic example is WinDbg Preview. The second type is Server Silo, which is a true container. A true container must have its file system, Registry, and Object Manager namespace virtualized. This is exactly the role of the WC subkeys – provide the private Registry keys for containers. The Configuration Manager (as well as other parts of the kernel) are Silo-aware, and will redirect Registry calls to the correct subkey, having no effect on the Host Registry or the private Registry of other Silos.
You can examine some aspects of silos with the kernel debugger !silo command. Here is an example from a server 2022 running a Server Silo and the Registry keys under WC:
There you have it. The relatively simple-looking Registry shown in RegEdit is viewed differently by the kernel. Device driver writers find this out relatively early – they cannot use the “abstractions” provided by user mode even if these are sometimes convenient.
The standard Windows Registry contains some keys that are not real keys, but instead are symbolic links (or simply, links) to other keys. For example, the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSetis a symbolic link to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\ControlSet001 (in most cases). When working with the standard Registry editor, RegEdit.exe, symbolic links look like normal keys, in the sense that they behave as the link’s target. The following figure shows the above mentioned keys. They look exactly the same (and they are).
There are several other existing links in the Registry. As another example, the hive HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG is a link to (HKLM is HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE) HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware Profiles\Current.
But how to do you create such links yourself? The official Microsoft documentation has partial details on how to do it, and it misses two critical pieces of information to make it work.
Let’s see if we can create a symbolic link. One rule of Registry links, is that the link must point to somewhere within the same hive where the link is created; we can live with that. For demonstration purposes, we’ll create a link in HKEY_CURRENT_USER named DesktopColors that links to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop\Colors.
The first step is to create the key and specify it to be a link rather than a normal key (error handling omitted):
The important part is that REG_OPTION_CREATE_LINK flag that indicates this is supposed to be a link rather than a standard key. The KEY_WRITE access mask is required as well, as we are about to set the link’s target.
Now comes the first tricky part. The documentation states that the link’s target should be written to a value named “SymbolicLinkValue” and it must be an absolute registry path. Sounds easy enough, right? Wrong. The issue here is the “absolute path” – you might think that it should be something like “HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop\Colors” just like we want, but hey – maybe it’s supposed to be “HKCU” instead of “HKEY_CURRENT_USER” – it’s just a string after all.
It turns out both these variants are wrong. The “absolute path” required here is a native Registry path that is not visible in RegEdit.exe, but it is visible in my own Registry editing tool, RegEditX.exe, downloadable from https://github.com/zodiacon/AllTools. Here is a screenshot, showing the “real” Registry vs. the view we get with RegEdit.
This top view is the “real” Registry is seen by the Windows kernel. Notice there is no HKEY_CURRENT_USER, there is a USER key where subkeys exist that represent users on this machine based on their SIDs. These are mostly visible in the standard Registry under the HKEY_USERS hive.
The “absolute path” needed is based on the real view of the Registry. Here is the code that writes the correct path based on my (current user’s) SID:
The above code shows the second (undocumented, as far as I can tell) piece of crucial information – the length of the link path (in bytes) must NOT include the NULL terminator. Good luck guessing that 🙂
And that’s it. We can safely close the key and we’re done.
Well, almost. If you try to delete your newly created key using RegEdit.exe – the target is deleted, rather than the link key itself! So, how do you delete the key link? (My RegEditX does not support this yet).
The standard RegDeleteKey and RegDeleteKeyEx APIs are unable to delete a link. Even if they’re given a key handle opened with REG_OPTION_OPEN_LINK – they ignore it and go for the target. The only API that works is the native NtDeleteKey function (from NtDll.Dll).
First, we add the function’s declaration and the NtDll import:
extern "C" int NTAPI NtDeleteKey(HKEY);
#pragma comment(lib, "ntdll")
As a final note, RegCreateKeyEx cannot open an existing link key – it can only create one. This in contrast to standard keys that can be created OR opened with RegCreateKeyEx. This means that if you want to change an existing link’s target, you have to call RegOpenKeyEx first (with REG_OPTION_OPEN_LINK) and then make the change (or delete the link key and re-create it).